An emerging or promising practice is a treatment that has been studied, and one or more studies on the treatment suggest it produces favorable outcomes. However, additional studies that consistently show the treatment to be effective are needed before researchers can be confident the treatment is effective. Until there are additional studies, an emerging practice cannot be ruled out as ineffective.
These interventions involve the use of high- or low-technologically sophisticated devices to facilitate communication. Examples include pictures, photographs, symbols, communication books, computers or other electronic devices.
These interventions focus on changing everyday negative or unrealistic thought patterns and behaviors with the aim of positively influencing emotions and/or life functioning.
These treatments involve a combination of procedures that are based on developmental theory and emphasize the importance of building social relationships. These treatments may be delivered in a variety of settings (e.g., home, classroom, community). These treatment programs may also be referred to as the Denver model; DIR (developmental, individual differences, relationship-based)/floor time; relationship development intervention; or responsive teaching.
These interventions involve an increase in physical exertion as a means of reducing problem behaviors or increasing appropriate behavior.
These interventions require that the individual with ASD increasingly face anxiety-provoking situations while preventing the use of maladaptive strategies used in the past under these conditions.
These interventions rely on adults imitating the actions of a child.
These interventions involve directly teaching individuals with ASD to initiate interactions with their peers.
The primary goal of these interventions is to increase speech production. Examples include echo relevant word training, oral communication training, oral verbal communication training, structured discourse, simultaneous communication and individualized language remediation.
The primary goal of these interventions is to increase both speech production and understanding of communicative acts. Examples include total communication training, position object training, position self-training and language programming strategies.
These interventions involve the provision of deep tissue stimulation.
These interventions involve a combination of multiple treatment procedures that are derived from different fields of interest or different theoretical orientations. These treatments do not better fit one of the other treatment "packages" in this list nor are they associated with specific treatment programs.
These interventions seek to teach individual skills or goals through music. A targeted skill (e.g., counting, learning colors, taking turns, etc.) is first presented through song or rhythmic cuing and music is eventually faded.
These interventions involve targeting academic skills by involving same-aged peers in the learning process. This approach is also described as peer tutoring.
This treatment involves the application of a specific augmentative and alternative communication system based on behavioral principles that are designed to teach functional communication to children with limited verbal and/or communication skills.
These interventions rely on strategies designed to reduce problem behaviors in the absence of increasing alternative appropriate behaviors. Examples include water mist, behavior chain interruption (without attempting to increase an appropriate behavior), protective equipment and ammonia.
These interventions involve developing a verbal and/or written script about a specific skill or situation which serves as a model for the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Scripts are usually practiced repeatedly before the skill is used in the actual situation.
These interventions involve the direct teaching of sign language as a means of communicating with other individuals in the environment.
These psychosocial interventions involve targeting some combination of social communication impairments such as pragmatic communication skills, and the inability to successfully read social situations. These treatments may also be referred to as social pragmatic interventions.
These interventions seek to build social interaction skills in children with ASD by targeting basic responses (e.g., eye contact, name response) to complex social skills (e.g., how to initiate or maintain a conversation).
Based on neuropsychological characteristics of individuals with autism, this intervention involves a combination of procedures that rely heavily on the physical organization of a setting, predictable schedules and individualized use of teaching methods. These procedures assume that modifications in the environment, materials and presentation of information can make thinking, learning and understanding easier for people with ASD if they are adapted to individual learning styles and learning characteristics. These treatment programs may also be referred to as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-handicapped CHildren).
These interventions require the presentation of instructional materials using the medium of computers or related technologies. Examples include alpha program, delta messages, the Emotion Trainer Computer program, pager, robot or a PDA (personal digital assistant). The theories behind technology-based treatments may vary, but they are unique in their use of technology.
These interventions are designed to teach people with ASD to recognize and identify mental states (i.e., a person’s thoughts, beliefs, intentions, desires and emotions) in oneself or in others and to be able to take the perspective of another person in order to predict their actions.
Source: National Standards Report, National Standards Project, National Autism Center, 2009
Updated: February 11, 2013